Cinematography in short is putting all the mise-en-scene on a film including applying the general principles of composition in every scene (the lighting of the set or location, the color balance) through the use of particular cameras, lenses, film stock, utilizing various film-speeds and positions with the use of particular filters to achieve the desired effects, in the hope of creating the most aesthetic outcome in terms of visual . All of these tasks are the responsibility of a DoP based on the request/arrangements from the film director. Nevertheless, some film directors such as Riddley Scott, James Cameron, Stanley Kubrick and even Spielberg often operate the cameras themselves to ensure everything shot accordingly.
On the other hand, a cinematographer or DoP (Director of Photography) is the person responsible for putting the scene on film as well as the general composition of the scene (the lighting of the set or location, the color balance). The director of photography is also responsible for the choice of cameras, lenses,film stock and filters. He decides how the camera moves and positioned on set. As time goes by, the tasks of a DoP get much easier during filming, thanks to the constant improvements in film technology but it has consequences, improved technology requires extra attention for he also has to be involved from the beginning of filming activities and also is in charged for all the mise en scene that happen in front of his viewfinder. This gives him additional coverage and knowledge about the filming process so that more and more DoP become a film director.